Here are the newest rulings on alternative source citing.

Newest Rulings on Alternative Source Citing

Rest-Stop Restroom Graffitti

When citing rest-stop graffitti:

  1. List the name of the rest area (if it has a name) in italics.
  2. Name the state in which it was located.
  3. Name the highway it abuts (with direction headed).
  4. List the nearest mile marker.
  5. List the date the graffitti was observed.

Example: "Head you wouldn't believe, call 555-3278." [The Ida C. Collins Memorial Rest Area, Wisconsin; Interstate 94 South (Mile Marker 218): May 14, 1997.]

Magic 8-Balls

When citing Magic 8-Balls:

  1. List the question asked the Magic 8-Ball (in quotes).
  2. Identify the location where you consulted the Magic 8-Ball.
  3. List the manufacturer of the Magic 8-ball (in italics).
  4. List the date that you consulted the Magic 8-Ball.

Example: "Reply Hazy, Try Again Later." ["Will I get tenured?" Oasis Tavern, 6907 N. Sheridan Rd., Chicago, IL: Tyco Toys, Inc., January 12, 1998.]

Alien Mind Transmissions

When citing telepathic transmissions from alien planets/spacecraft:

  1. Name the aliens who sent the message (if known).
  2. Identify the location of planet or craft.
  3. Identify the location where transmission was received.
  4. List the date the transmission was received.

Example: "Internal combustion vehicles are wasteful and evil. You must stand in the street and curse their drivers and occupants immediately." [The Elders of Antares 7; A Ship Orbiting Saturn; Corner of Lawrence Avenue and Broadway, Chicago, IL: July 5,1989.]


When citing tattoos or other body art/text:

  1. List the part of the body on which the tattoo was seen.
  2. Name the person sporting the tattoo (if known).
  3. Identify the location where tattoo was observed (if known).
  4. List the date the tattoo was observed (if known).

Example: "This End Up." [Left Buttock, Unidentified Male Dancer; The Loading Zone Bar, Halsted Street; Chicago, Il: January, 31 1998?]

Epithets Hollered Out Car Windows

When citing epithets hollered out car windows:

  1. Describe the vehicle from which epithet emanated (approximations are acceptable in cases of great speed).
  2. Identify the location where the incident occurred (see #1).
  3. List the date incident occurred (see #1).

Example: "Hey Buddy, who the F*CK taught you how to drive?" [Large Delivery-Type Truck, Near Main and Chicago Streets; Evanston, IL: March 5, 1999.]

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