VENUS




Venus Diameter: 12,104 km, 0.948 Earth Diameters
Planetary Mass: 4.86x1024 kg, 0.82 Earth masses
Average Distance from Sun: 108 million km, 0.7233 AU (astronomical units)

Length of Day: 243 Earth days
Length of Year: 225 Earth days
Axis inclined by 177 degrees, rotates RETROGRADE (backward)


Number of natural satellites: 0
Planetary ring system: No

Average temperature: 737 K (464 C or 900 F) -- hot enough to melt lead

Atmospheric composition: 96.5% Carbon Dioxide (CO2), 3.5% Nitrogen (N2)


Most interesting feature of Venus: It's atmosphere

Atmospheric Pressure at surface is 90x Earth's

Sulphur Dioxide clouds (sulpfuric acid clouds)
Lightning



ENORMOUSLY HEAVY ATMOSPHERE (1979 Pioneer photo)
Runaway Greenhouse effect --> HOT




First Exploration of the Surface:
Soviet Union's
Venera 13 landed March 1982.

Magellan Radar Maps (1989-1993)
High Resolution

Cluster of volcanos

Lava Flows

Lava flows

Artist's idea of the surface of Venus



Flights over the surface of Venus: Magellan Radar results

Discriptions from http://www.solarviews.com/cap/venus/flight2.htm

These animations were taken from the NASA movie Collection of Magellan: Venus Radar Mapping Results (CMP 406), by Calvin J. Hamilton.


High res movie


Rotating Venus Movie

Flight 1


This computer generated animation creates a simulated flight over the western edge of Atla Region. We see two volcanoes with lava flows extending from the volcanoes across the fractured plains.

Magellan radar images are combined with altimetry to develop a vertically exaggerated three-dimensional map of the surface. Radarclinometry and simulated color are used to enhance the small scale structure of the surface features.

Our flight begins with a view of the northern face of Maat Mons, (a 3 mile high volcano). We fly over Maat Mons and around Sapas Mons (a 1.3 mile high volcano). The flight ends with a final view of the nothern face of Maat Mons.

Computer animation techniques were used to create this simulated flight over the surface of Venus. This video sequence uses radar mapping data recorded by the Magellan spacecraft during September 1990 to February 1991.

Simulated color approximates hues which might be seen by the human eye, based on color images recorded by the Venera 13 and 14 spacecraft. The brightness variations are due to changes in roughness, slope and composition.

The vertical scale of this flight is exaggerated by a factor of 10. Five mosaics of radar images from selected orbits were used to create this animation sequence.



Flight 2


This animation was taken from the NASA movie Collection of Magellan: Venus Radar Mapping Results (CMP 406). It was digitized by Calvin J. Hamilton.


This computer generated animation creates a rotating globe of Venus and a simulated flight over Artemis and eastern Aphrodite Terra. We see deep chasms and a circular corona 1612 miles across.

Magellan radar images are combined with altimetry to create a three dimensional map of the surface. Simulated color and radarclinometry are used to enhance the small scale structure of the surface features.

Our flight begins with a global view of Venus and zooms in to Artemis, the largest corona on Venus. We fly over Mitchell crater into the trough surrounding Artemis. We fly to Diana and Dali chasms. Our flight ends as we ascend for a final view of Artemis.

Computer animation techniques were used to create this simulated flight over the surface of Venus. This video sequence uses radar mapping data recorded by the Magellan spacecraft during September 1990 to February 1991.

Simulated color approximates hues which might be seen by the human eye, based on color images recorded by the Venera 13 and 14 spacecraft. The brightness variations are due to changes in roughness, slope and composition.

The vertical scale of this flight is exaggerated by a factor of 22.5. Five mosaics of radar images from selected orbits were used to create this animation sequence.

Flight 3



This computer generated animation creates a simulated flight over the northwestern portion of Lavinia Planitia and Alpha Regio. We seeimpact craters and a broad 800 mile wide region of complex ridged terrain.

Magellan radar images are combined with altimetry to develop a three dimensional map of the surface. Radarclinometry and simulated color are used to enhance the small scale structure of the surface features.

Our flight begins with a view of three craters: Howe. Danilova. Aglaonice. We fly over the complex terrain of Alpha Regio, a large ovoid-shaped feature named Eve and seven circular domes. The flight ends with a view of Stuart crater.

Computer animation techniques were used to create this simulated flight over the surface of Venus. This video sequence uses radar mapping data recorded by the Magellan spacecraft during September 1990 to February 1991.

Simulated color approximates hues which might be seen by the human eye, based on color images recorded by the Venera 13 and 14 spacecraft. The brightness variations are due to changes in roughness, slope and composition.

The vertical scale of this flight is exaggerated by a factor of 22.5. Five mosaics of radar images from selected orbits were used to create this animation sequence.


Flight 4


This computer generated animation creates a simulated flight over the western portion of Eistla Regio - a broad 1380 by 1200 mile region of Venus. Many of the features we see may be the result of hot material upwelling from the interior of the planet.

Magellan radar images are combined with altimetry to create a three dimensional map of the surface. Radarclinometry and simulated color are used to enhance the small scale structure of the surface features.

Our flight begins with a view of Sif Mons (a 1.2 mile high volcano). We fly over a rift valley, several impact craters, a corona and Gula Mons (a 1.8 mile high volcano). The flight ends with a northeast view of Eistla Regio.

Computer animation techniques were used to create this simulated flight over the surface of Venus. This video sequence uses radar mapping data recorded by the Magellan spacecraft during September 1990 to February 1991.

Simulated color approximates hues which might be seen by the human eye, based on color images recorded by the Venera 13 and 14 spacecraft. The brightness variations are due to changes in roughness, slope and composition.

The vertical scale of this flight is exaggerated by a factor of 22.5. Five mosaics of radar images from selected orbits were used to create this animation sequence.