Basic Skills/Definitions Quiz  Chapter 9
Part A
Suppose we use a baseball to represent Earth. On this scale, the other terrestrial worlds (Mercury, Venus, the Moon, and Mars) would range in size approximately from that of ______.
Hint A.1
Study Section 9.1
ANSWER:

A golf ball to a baseball. A dust speck to a basketball. A golf ball to a beach ball. A dust speck to a golf ball.
Part B
From center to surface, which of the following correctly lists the interior layers of a terrestrial world?
Hint B.1
Study Section 9,1
ANSWER:

Mantle, crust, core. Core, crust, lithosphere. Core, mantle, crust. Mantle, core, crust.
Part C
What do we mean when we say that the terrestrial worlds underwent differentiation?
Hint C.1
Study Section 9.1
ANSWER:

The five terrestrial worlds all started similarly but ended up looking quite different. They lost interior heat to outer space. At a time when their interiors were molten, denser materials sank toward their centers and lighter materials rose toward their surfaces. Their surfaces show a variety of different geological features resulting from different geological processes.
Part D
Which of the following best describes what we mean by a terrestrial world's lithosphere?
Hint D.1
Study Section 9.1
ANSWER:

It is the interior region of a planet in which a magnetic field is generated. It is a layer of hot, molten rock encompassing the core and part of the mantle. It is the outer layer of relatively strong, rigid rock, encompassing the crust and part of the mantle. It is a thin layer of rock that lies between the mantle and crust.
Part E
The three major processes that made the interiors of the terrestrial worlds hot are:
Hint E.1
Study Section 9.1
ANSWER:

Heat of accretion, heat from convection, and heat from thermal radiation. Volcanism, tectonics, and erosion. Heat deposited as the planets were built from planetesimals, heat of accretion, and heat that came from the gravitational potential energy of incoming planetesimals. Heat deposited as the planets were built from planetesimals, heat deposited as the planets underwent differentiation, and heat released by radioactive decay.
Part F
Which of the following is an example of convection?
Hint F.1
Study Section 9.1
ANSWER:

Gas bubbling upward through a liquid. Different kinds of material separating by density, like oil and water. Warm air expanding and rising while cooler air contracts and fall. Rocks sinking in water.
Part G
What are the basic requirements for a terrestrial world to have a global magnetic field?
Hint G.1
Study Section 9.1
ANSWER:

A metal core, a rocky mantle, and rapid rotation. A metal core and rapid rotation. A core layer of molten, convecting material and sufficiently rapid rotation. A core that has a molten layer and a mantle that has convection.
Part H
In general, which things below are affected by a magnetic field?
Hint H.1
Study Section 9.1
ANSWER:

Rocks of all types. Gases and liquids. Charged particles and a few minerals (such as those containing iron). Iron-bearing minerals only.
Part I
The processes responsible for virtually all surface geology are:
Hint I.1
Study Section 9.2
ANSWER:

Convection, conduction, and radiation. Impact cratering, volcanisms, tectonics, and erosion. Eruptions, lava flows, and outgassing. Accretion, differentiation, and radioactive decay.
Part J
Which of the following best describes the lunar maria?
Hint J.1
Study Section 9.3
ANSWER:

Mountainous regions on the Moon. Densely cratered regions on the Moon. Frozen oceans of liquid water on the Moon. Relatively smooth, flat plains on the Moon.
Part K
In the context of planetary geology, what do we mean by outgassing?
Hint K.1
Study Section 9.2
ANSWER:

The loss of atmospheric gas to outer space. The evaporation of water that adds water vapor (a gas) to an atmosphere. Outgassing is simply another name for a volcanic eruption. The release by volcanism of gases that had been trapped in a planetary interior.
Part L
Which of the following is NOT an example of tectonics?
Hint L.1
Study Section 9.2
ANSWER:

The stretching of the crust by underlying mantle convection. The gradual disappearance of a crater rim as a result of wind and rain. The formation of a cliff when the lithosphere shrinks. The slow movement of Earth's lithospheric plates.
Part M
What observational evidence supports the idea that Mercury once shrank by some 20 kilometers in radius?
Hint M.1
Study Section 9.3
ANSWER:

The presence of many impact craters. The characteristics of the Caloris Basin. The presence of many long, tall cliffs. Mercury's unusually high density.
Part N
Olympus Mons is ______.
Hint N.1
Study Section 9.4
ANSWER:

A great canyon on Mars. A large lava plain on the Moon. A huge shield volcano on Mars. A huge stratovolcano on Venus.
Part O
Which of the following does NOT provide evidence that Mars once had abundant liquid water on its surface?
Hint O.1
Study Section 9.4
ANSWER:

The presence of "blueberries" made of the mineral hematite. The presence of features that look like dried up river beds. The presence of very old craters that appear to have been eroded by rain. The presence of canali discovered in the late 1800s by Giovanni Schiaparelli and mapped by Percival Lowell.
Part P
Based on its surface features, the most important event on Venus in the past billion years or so was:
Hint P.1
Study Section 9.5
ANSWER:

A global "repaving" that erased essentially all the surface features that had existed earlier. The onset of mantle convection, which caused Venus's lithosphere to split into plates like those on Earth. The impact of an unusually large asteroid that left a deep scar on one side of the planet. The eruption of a giant volcano that formed one of Venus's "continents."
Part Q
On average, how fast do the plates move on the Earth?
Hint Q.1
Study Section 9.6
ANSWER:

a few millimeters per century a few centimeters per year about 1 mile per hour a few kilometers per year
Part R
How does seafloor crust differ from continental crust?
Hint R.1
Study Section 9.6
ANSWER:

Seafloor crust is thinner, younger, and higher in density. Seafloor crust is thicker, older, and higher in density. Seafloor crust is thicker, younger, and lower in density. Seafloor crust is thinner, older, and lower in density.
Part S
In the context of plate tectonics, what is a subduction zone?
Hint S.1
Study Section 9.6
ANSWER:

A place where two continental plates are colliding. A place where two plates are slipping sideways against one another. A place where a seafloor plate is sliding under a continental plate. A place where two plates are pulling apart.
Part T
Which of the following places is the result of volcanoes erupting because of a hot spot in the mantle?
Hint T.1
Study Section 9.6
ANSWER:

the Appalachians the Himalayas California Hawaii